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Francisco de Goya y Lucientes  1746 - 1828
 
1746 – Born 30 March in Fuendetodos village near Saragossa in Aragon. Father is a gilder, mother comes from minor hidalgo (noble) family. Little known of his childhood.
1760 – Apprenticed (14) to José Luzan y Martinez mediocre local painter and protégé of local nobles. This a time of small artistic revival and founding of provincial academies in Aragon.
1761- Raphael Mengs (who will influence Goya’s closest painter friend Bayeu) and Tiepolo, two of the best known Italian painters of the day arrive in Madrid to work for the King.
1763 – Leaves for Madrid where he applies without luck to the academy in 1763 (at 17) and 1766 (at 20).
1771 – Travels through Italy where his talent is first noticed in Parma painting competition. In Rome introduced to Mengs. Returns to Saragossa where he works on decorations of cathedral, basilica del Pilar.
1773 Back in Madrid. Meets early mentor painter Francisco Bayeu. Marries Bayeu’s sister Josefa called “Pepa”. All his children but son Xavier will pre-decease him. Paints also at home in Saragossa where he proves to be very successful. Discovers Tiepolos (meets son Domenico) in royal palace and Velazquez whose works he etches.
1774 – Summoned by Mengs begins series of tapestry cartoons for Royal manufacture of Santa Barbara.
1776 – Paints second series of tapestry cartoons showing popular customs for dining room of Pardo palace.
1780 – Elected to the Royal Academy after presentation of “Crucifixion.” Falls out with Bayeu, becomes increasingly confident and independent.  Begins working as a portraitist.
1784 – Duke and Duchess of Osuna commission “Four Seasons” for their country estate.
1785 – Made assistant director of Academy.
1786 – Makes it up with Bayeu. He is named with Francisco’s brother Ramon Bayeu director of tapestry manufacture.
1788 – Patronized by new director of Spanish Royal Bank, count of Altamira. Obtains noble (hidalgo) status by digging out archival proofs of noble ancestry, buys carriage, leads the “high” life. Paints “Blindman’s Buff” for Infanta’s bedroom at Pardo palace. Death of Charles III.
1789 – Named by new King Charles IV ‘Pintor de Camara”, official painter to the King.
1791 – Final tapestry series (Wedding, Manikin, Stilt-walkers.) Nearly refuses commission but changes his mind when threatened with salary suspension. Frequents high society and the key figures of the Spanish Enlightenment, the “novadores” like Gaspar Melchor de Javellanos. Considers it beneath his dignity to now mix with the common people, the majos and majas.
1792 – Manuel Godoy the 26 year-old lover of Queen Maria Luisa is appointed Secretary of State and is promoted to field Marshall and duke. Runs in effect the Spanish state in lieu of the weak Charles IV. In reaction to the French Revolution liberals and reformists are firmly suppressed. Goya is seriously ill (mysterious hardening of the arteries) and also goes deaf. Some doctors believe he suffered from the effects of syphilis.
1794 - Goya falls in love with duchess of Alba (according to legend the model for “maja desnuda”), suffers greatly from her indifference and from pangs of jealousy.
1797 – Resigns from Academy. Starts first famous print series the “Capricios” published in 1799.
1798 – Named Primer Pintor de Camara - first painter to the King.
1800 – Paints famous portrait of the royal family, his last royal commission.
1805 – Goya begins passionate affair with Leocadia Zorilla de Weiss, a Spanish woman separated from her German husband and of very liberal political opinions. She will remain with him until his death.
1808 Rebellion against Godoy’s regime in Aranjuez with tacit encouragement of Ferdinand the Crown Prince. Charles IV abdicates in favour of his son. The French under general Murat invade Spain and enter Madrid. Charles and Ferdinand are taken as prisoners to France. Spanish throne is ceded to Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon’s older brother. On 2 May the Madrid population rises against the occupying forces and is bloodily suppressed.
1810 – Reacting to ferocious French occupation Goya begins the “Disasters of War” print series.
1812 – Death of Goya’s wife Josefa.
1813 – Return of Spanish royals, new King is Ferdinand VII son of Charles IV. He re-establishes the Inquisition.
1814 – Paints “Execution of 3 May”. Clears himself of accusations of collaboration with French authorities – had in fact participated in French commission to select best Spanish paintings to be sent to Paris. By now 70, is considered old fashioned, will never regain his former status.
1815-16 -  Works on next print series the “Bullfights”.
1819 – Buys country house, “Quinta” which he decorates with “black” paintings.
1820-23 – Brief liberal period in Spain, during which King is obliged to grant a Constitution, comes to an end with the restoration of absolute royal power with the help of the French under Louis XVIII (battle of Trocadero). Goya a liberal supporter goes into hiding.
1824 – General amnesty for liberals, Goya (now 78) asks permission to cross border to take the baths in Plombières. Spends 2 months in Paris where he meets with Spanish exiles. Settles in Bordeaux never to return to Spain.
1828 – Dies in Bordeaux on 16 April.
 
Paintings:
 
Royal tapestry Cartoons   First series 1774-1775
Second series 1776-1777
Third series 1778-80
Last tapestries series 1791
 
Portraits:
 
Manuel Osorio c. 1788 - Little son of bank director Conde de Altamira.
Portrait of Duke of Osuna and his family 1788
Francisco Bayeu (father in law) 1795
Josefa Bayeur (Pepa) Goya’s wife c. 1798
Duke and Duchess of Alba (2 portraits) 1795
Portrait of the Duchess of Alba in mourning 1797
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (Spanish Enlightenment scholar and writer) 1798
Equestrian portrait of Queen Maria-Luisa 1799
Family of Charles IV 1800-01
Condessa de Chichon 1800 - Godoy’s wife.
 

 

 

 
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