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Paris Art Studies - The Golden Age of Dutch Art:The George and Ilone Kremer collection


Dutch Historical Chronology


1555 – Philip II of Spain succeeds to his father the Emperor Charles V. The Netherlands are under Spanish sovereignty. Philip begins a campaign to eradicate Protestantism from his domains. He transfers the capital of the Netherlands to Brussels.

1568 The 7 northern provinces of the Netherlands rebel against Spanish rule. Beginning of the “Eighty years war”.

1579 – The 7 provinces unite under the treaty of Utrecht to form the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

1581 – The Act of Abjuration or Plakkaat van Verlatinghe was signed on July 26, 1581, and was the formal declaration of independence of the northern Low Countries from the Spanish king. William of Orange (1533 -1584), the founder of the Dutch royal family, leads the Dutch during the first part of the war. Calvinism is the dominant religion of the new state.

1584 – William is assassinated in Delft and is succeeded by his son Maurice.

1585 – The Spanish take Antwerp. Many of its wealthiest citizens and merchants flee to Amsterdam.

During the Eighty Years' War the Dutch provinces became the most important trading centre of Northern Europe, replacing Flanders and the port of Antwerp in this respect. Amsterdam will become the leading city and port. Dutch ships hunted whales off Svalbard, dominated the Baltic trade, traded spices in India and Indonesia (via the Dutch East India Company) and founded colonies in New Amsterdam (New York), South Africa and the West Indies.

1602 – Founding of the Dutch East India Company given the monopoly on trade east of the Cape of Good Hope (with India and the Far East).

1609 – Truce signed with Spain.

1611 – Founding in Amsterdam of the first stock exchange in Europe.

1619 – Batavia (later Jacarta) becomes the main trading post of the East India Company in Indonesia.

1621 - Founding of the Dutch West India Company which specializes in the slave trade between Africa and America. The Netherlands become the pre-eminent slave trading country in Europe, a position overtaken by Britain around 1700.

1621 – Hostilities with Spain resume.

1625 – Death of Maurice succeeded by his half brother Frederick Henry who will lead the Dutch to great military victories over the Spanish (taking of Breda, 1637).

1637 Speculation in the tulip trade led to a first stock market crash, but the economic crisis was soon overcome.

1641 – Opening of a trading post in Japan, near Nagasaki, which will remain the only foreign settlement in Japan until 1853.

1648 The Peace of Westphalia, signed on January 30, 1648, confirms the independence of the United Provinces from Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.

1649 – Death of Frederick Henry. Beginning of new city hall on Dam square in Amsterdam.

1650 – The new stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange suddenly died of smallpox; his son, the later stadtholder and subsequent king of England, William III, was born only 8 days later, hence leaving the nation without an obvious successor. Since the conception of the Republic, there had been an ongoing struggle for power between the 'regents', an informal elite of affluent citizens on the one hand and the House of Orange on the other hand, whose supporters, Orangists, were mainly to be found among the common people. For now, the regents seized the opportunity: there would be no new stadtholder (in Holland) for 22 years to come. Johan de Witt, a brilliant politician and diplomat, emerged as the dominant political figure.

1652 - First Anglo-Dutch War over trade disputes ends with the Treaty of Westminster (1654).

1658 – The Dutch control Ceylon (Sri Lanka).

1672-78 – 1672 is known in the Netherlands as the "Disastrous Year" (Rampjaar). England declared war on the Republic, (the Third Anglo-Dutch War), followed by France, Münster and Cologne, which had all signed alliances against the Republic. France, Cologne and Münster invaded the Republic. Johan de Witt and his brother Cornelis, who had accomplished a diplomatic balancing act for a long time, were now the obvious scapegoats. They were lynched, and a new stadtholder, William III, Prince of Orange, was appointed. An Anglo-French attempt to land on the Dutch shore could only just be repelled in three desperate naval battles under command of admiral Michiel de Ruyter. The advance of French troops from the south could only be halted by a costly inundation of the Dutch heartland, by breaching river dykes. With the aid of friendly German princes, the Dutch succeeded in fighting back Cologne and Münster, after which the peace was signed with both of them, although some territory in the east was lost forever. Peace was signed with England as well, in 1674 (Second treaty of Westminster) and with France in 1678.

1688 - 1713 - After three undecided Anglo-Dutch Wars, the relations with England reached crisis level once again. Stadtholder William III was invited to invade England by Protestant British nobles feuding with William's father-in-law the Catholic James II of England. This led to the Glorious Revolution and cemented the principle of parliamentary rule and Protestant ascendency in England. James fled to France and William ascended to the English throne as co-monarch with his wife Mary, James' eldest daughter. This maneuver secured England as a critical ally of the United Provinces in its ongoing struggle with Louis XIV of France. William was the commander of the Dutch and English armies and fleets until his death in 1702. During William’s reign his primary focus was leveraging British manpower and finances to aid the Dutch against the French. Nevertheless, the end of the War of the Spanish Succession (1713) marked the end of the Dutch Republic as a major player. In the 18th century, it just tried to maintain its independence and stuck to a policy of neutrality. The Netherlands slowly lost its position as the trading centre of Northern Europe. Amsterdam was gradually replaced as the central financial market and book market in Europe by London.


Dutch works from the Kremer collection on exhibition at the Pinacothèque de Paris:


Still Life and animal painting:

Adrian Coorte (Middleburg and Amsterdam, active c. 1683-1707) Mountain landscape with ducks c. 1683

Jan Davidsz de Heem (Utrecht 1606 – 1683/84 Antwerp) – Still Life with Books and globe c. 1628

Judith Leyster (haarlem 1609 – 1660 Heemstede) Still life with fruit 1635-40 (one of few well known women painters of 17c)

Carstian Luyckx (Antwerp 1623 – c. 1675) Fowl attacked by a fox 1660-70

Michiel Simons (Antwerp (?) – 1673 Utrecht) Dead fowl in landscape 1650 (influenced by Italianate landscapes of Jan Both)

Marines, Landscape, Cityscape:

Ludolf Backhuysen (Emden 1630 – 1708 Amsterdam) Ships on stormy sea 1702 (best marine specialist left in Amsterdam after departure of van de Velde father and son to London in 1672)

Abraham Bloemaert (Gorinchem 1566-1651 Utrecht) A Cottage with peasants and goats c. 1620

Adam Colonia (Rotterdam 1634 – 1685 London) Village fire by night c. 1660 (night light effect)

Albert Cuyp (Dordrecht 1620 – 1691) – Lumber yard near Dordrecht c. 1639

Meindert Hobbema (Amsterdam 1638-1709) Wooded landscape with cottage c. 1663-68

Philip Koninck (Amsterdam 1619-1688) Panorama with travelers and herdsmen 1676

Jan Lievens (Leiden 1607 – 1674 Amsterdam) Hilly landscape with peasants c. 1640

Isack van Ostade (Haarlem 1621-1649) Ice scene near inn 1643 (one of 3 known by artist)

Ebbert van der Poel (1621-1664) Fire by Night 1658 (night light effect)

Aerout Smit (1640/41 – Amsterdam – 1710) Ships in stormy sea off rocky coast 1670

Jan Baptist Weenix (Amsterdam 1621 -1659 near Utrecht) Italianate landscape with ruins 1656

Emanuel de Witte (Alkmaar 1617 – 1692 Amsterdam) – Interior of the Oude Kerk, Amsterdam 1678

Domestic scenes, Genre, Mythologies:

Abraham Bloemaert (Gorinchem 1566-1651 Utrecht) Boy with rumbling pot c. 1625-30 (Mardi Gras scene influenced by Caravagesque Haarlem painters, notably Hals)

Adriaen Brouwer (Oudenaarde c. 1605/6 – 1683 Antwerp) Peasant cutting his thumbnail 1640-50

Hendrick ter Brugghen (The Hague (?) 1588 – 1629 Utrecht) Singing lute player 1624 (most famous of Utrecht Caravaggists)

Benjamin Gerritsz Cuyp (Dordrecht 1612-1652) Oriental writer sharpening his pen 1640-50 (a Rembrandesque scene by the uncle of the more famous Albert Cuyp)

Jan Hals (Haarlem 1620-1674) Boy eating porridge

Gerrit van Honthorst (Utrecht 1592-1656) St Peter penitent 1618 (one of 17 known paintings from Italian period)

Gerrit van Honthorst (Utrecht 1592-1656) Old woman examining a coin by a lantern 1623 (allegory of Sight or Avarice) painted shortly after his return from Italy had probable influence on Rembrandt.

Pieter de Hooch (Rotterdam1629 – 1684 Amsterdam) Man reading a letter to a woman 1670’s (one of artist’s best late works)

Jacob van Loo (Sluis 1614-1670 Paris) Danae c. 1655-60 (ancestor of the French painters Michel and Carle van Loo.

Circle of Gabriel Metsu (Leiden 1629-1667 Amsterdam) A Woman and boy cooking pancakes 1650

Jan Miense Molenaer (Haarlem 1610-1668) Young pipe smoker (allegory of taste) c. 1628-29. Husband of Judith Leyster.

Paulus Moreelse ((Utrecht 1571-1636) Shepherdess 1617

Matthijs Naiveu (Leiden 1647-1721 Amsterdam) Student of Geritt Dou – Gentleman smoking in courtyard 1690

Caspar Netscher (Heidelberg (?) c. 1636/39 – 1684 The Hague) A Lady washing her hands 1657 (an allegory of purity painted while working in ter Borch’s studio)

Adriaen van Ostade (1610 - 1685) Laughing peasant c. 1640 (influenced by Brower, probably met in Hals’ studio in Haarlem)

Student of Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn (Leiden1606 – 1669 Amsterdam) A Painter in his studio c. 1630

Theodoor Rombouts (Antwerp 1597-1637) Musicians with Bacchus c. 1630 (includes self portrait and that of his wife)

Pieter Vereslst (Dordrecht (?) 1618 – c. 1678 (?)) The Schoolmaster with his pupils

Peter Wtewael (Utrecht 1596-1660 Utrecht) Laughing man with flute 1623. (Son of the more famous Joachim, this one of his 5 known paintings. Musicians and players were a very popular theme with the Utrecht Caravaggists)

Matthias Stom (Amersfoort c. 1600 – after 1649 in Italy) Woman counting coins c. 1635, probably allegory of Avarice.

Biblical scenes and History paintings:

Ferdinand Bol (Dordrecht 1616-1680) Virgin and Child with St John the Baptist and Gabriel 1659

Jan van Bylert (Utrecht 1597/1598 – 1671) St Mark 1623-30

Pieter Codde (Amsterdam 1599-1678) The Sacrifice of Polyxena c.1640 (a rare Dutch history painting depicting scene from Trojan War)

Abraham Janssens (Antwerp c. 1575-1632) Virgin and Child with St John the Baptist 1617-20

Jan Lievens (Leiden 1607-1674 Amsterdam) Christ at the column c. 1625 (friend and rival of Rembrandt’s in their youth)

Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn ( Leiden1606 – 1669 Amsterdam) Bust of old man with turban c. 1627

After Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn (1606 – 1669) Baptism of a Eunuch 1661(copy of a lost painting of 1630)

Portraits and self portraits:

Jacob  Adrian Backer (1608-1651) – Portrait of woman with white headdress 1634 – influenced by Rembrandt

Gerrit Dou (Leiden 1613-1675) Student of Rembrandt’s  - Self portrait c. 1645

Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (Amsterdam 1621-1674) Portrait of Maria Bogaert 1670

Attributed to Frans Hals (1581/85 - 1666) Portrait of man 1637

Adrian Hanneman (The Hague c. 1604-1671) Self portrait 1669 painted for his third marriage at 65

Adrian Thomas Key (Antwerp c. 1544 – after 1589) Portrait of Spanish Grandee c. 1560

Michael Sweerts (Brussels 1618-1664 goa) A young maidservant c. 1660 (one of best known painings by the artist sometimes compared to Vermeer’s Girl with pearl earring)

Copper plates:

Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn ( Leiden1606 – 1669 Amsterdam) Man drawing from a cast c. 1640

Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn (Leiden1606 – 1669 Amsterdam) Three heads of women, one asleep 1637

Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn (Leiden1606 – 1669 Amsterdam) The Beheading of St John 1640


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