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Paris Art Studies - Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894) – Martial Caillebotte (1853-1910)


1848 – Birth in Paris in the Faubourg St Denis (10th arrdt), of Gustave son of Martial Caillebotte and his third wife Céleste Daufresne. Martial is a well-to-do manufacturer of iron beds and blankets for the French army. An older brother, Alfred, born of an earlier marriage will be ordained priest in 1858.

1851 – Birth of René Caillebotte.

1853 – Birth of Martial Caillebotte.

1858 – Gustave attends the lycée Louis le Grand.

1860 – His father buys a large estate and summer home in Yerres south of Paris.

1866 – Caillebotte père buys a plot at the corner of rues de Lisbonne and Miromesnil  in the 8th arrdt where he builds a three storey hôtel particulier.

1867 – The family moves to 77 rue de Miromesnil.

1868 – Gustave obtains his first law degree. His father pays for a replacement for his son’s military service so that he can continue his studies.

1870 – Gustave receives his final law degree (licence). In the 1870’s Martial will study the piano at the Paris conservatory.

1872 – Gustave travels in Italy with his father and visits his friend the painter Giuseppe de Nittis.

1873 – Gustave is admitted to the Ecole des Beaux Arts where he will briefly study under Cabanel, Gérôme, Pils and Yvon.

1874 – First Impressionist exhibition in the studios of the photographer Félix Nadar. An extra floor is added to the Caillebotte mansion to accommodate a studio for Gustave. Death of Caillebotte père.

1875 – “The Floor scrapers” rejected by the Salon. Gustave is introduced into the modern art circles of Paris by de Nittis who is friends with Degas and the Realist painter Léon Bonnat.

1876 – Caillebotte buys several canvases from Monet. They will become very close friends and Caillebotte will continue buying his works and support him financially for the rest of his life. He will also purchase paintings by Renoir and Pissarro. Caillebotte exhibits 8 works in the 2nd Impressionist exhibition held in the gallery of the art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel. Sudden death at 26 of Gustave’s younger brother René. This leads Gustave to dictate his first will leaving a sum of money for the organization of future Impressionist exhibitions and leaving his collection to the French state.

1877 – Caillebotte rents an apartment on rue Le Peletier (9th arrdt) for the 3rd Impressionist exhibition. He exhibits 15 works including Pont de l’Europe” and “Paris Street, Rainy Day”. He begins what will become a very important stamp collection with his brother Martial and is also introduced to yachting.

1878 – Two of Martial’s musical compositions are performed at the salle Pleyel. Death of Céleste Caillebotte at the age of 58. The inheritance from both parents means the brothers are assured a comfortable income for the rest of their lives.

1879 – The two brothers move to 77 boulevard Haussmann and sell the Yerres property. Caillebotte organizes the 4th Impressionist exhibition in a locale at 28 avenue de l’Opéra. He exhibits 25 works mostly painted in Yerres.

1880 – Both brothers are members of the Paris Sailing Club, Gustave made vice president. They participate in several regattas in Argenteuil and on the Normandy coast. Gustave shows 11 works in the 5th Impressionist exhibition held at 10 rue de Pyramides.

1881 – Gustave does not participate in 6th Impressionist exhibition as dissensions grow within the group. The brothers buy a property on the Seine at Petit Genevilliers near Argenteuil and its sailing club.

1882 – Gustave shows 17 works in the 7th Impressionist exhibition. Designs his first sailing boat, Jack. Paints in Trouville in the summer.

1883 – Martial composes an oratorio and an opera. Gustave’s painting praised in article by Realist critic and writer J.K. Huysmans. Gustave writes a second will confirming his previous dispositions, adding an annuity for his young mistress Charlotte Berthier and releasing Renoir from any debts.

1884 – Gustave buys several works at the posthumous Manet sale at the hôtel Drouot including “The Balcony”.

1885 – Birth of Renoir’s first son, Pierre, Gustave is the godfather.

1886 – Gustave shows 10 works in first impressionist exhibition organized by Durand-Ruel in New York. Does not show at 8th and last Impressionist exhibition mostly devoted to Pointilism.

1887 – Martial publishes a mass dedicated to his half brother Alfred. Gustave buys his brother’s share or the Petit Genevilliers property and adds to the grounds. Martial marries Marie Minoret in Paris. The marriage ceremony is conducted by Alfred.

1888 – Gustave makes Petit Genevilliers his principal residence. He is elected in town council and actively participates in local politics.  Shows 5 pictures at the XX exhibition in Brussels. Birth of Martial’s son, Jean.

1890 – Birth of Martial’s daughter, Geneviève.

1891 – Gustave continues going to Paris for regular Impressionist dinners at the Café Riche.

1892 – He is witness to Monet’s wedding to his second wife, Alice.

1894 – Gustave dies of a brain aneurysm at Petit Genevilliers at the age of 45. His funeral mass is conducted by Alfred and he is buried at the Père Lachaise cemetery. His will executor, Renoir and Martial inform the director of Fine Arts Henry Roujon of the bequest to the French state of 60 works. Retrospective exhibition of 122 works at Durand-Ruel’s.

1896 – After many hesitations and delays the state accepts to exhibit 40 paintings at the Musée du Luxembourg.

1910 – Death of Martial Caillebotte.

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